Займы до зарплаты исчезнут с рынка

Займы до зарплаты исчезнут с рынка

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Займы до зарплаты исчезнут с рынка

Фото:
Александр Петросян /
Коммерсантъ

По информации «Ъ», в ближайшее время Госдума планирует внести изменения в законодательство, которые вынудят уйти с рынка или серьезно переформатировать свою деятельность большинство микрофинансовых компаний (МФО). После недавних заявлений президента Владимира Путина о недопустимости ценовой политики таких игроков депутаты решили установить в законе предельные значения процентных ставок для МФО. Сейчас доходность микрозаймов может достигать 800% в год, а планируется ограничить ее уровнем 150% годовых. Участники рынка считают, что такое ограничение приведет к нерентабельности микрозаймов и обострит проблему фондирования МФО.

О том, что готовятся соответствующие поправки к законам «О потребкредите» и «О микрофинансовой деятельности и микрофинансовых организациях», «Ъ» рассказали два источника в финансово-экономическом блоке правительства, а также несколько участников рынка. Суть поправок — ограничить предельный размер процентной ставки по микрозаймам. «Мы намерены установить потолок ставки по займам МФО в 150%»,— подтвердил готовящиеся поправки глава комитета Госдумы по финансовому рынку Анатолий Аксаков. «Соответствующие предложения поступили в адрес Банка России и в настоящий момент изучаются»,— сообщили «Ъ» в пресс-службе ЦБ.

Сейчас среднерыночные значения полной стоимости микрозаймов, по данным ЦБ, достигают 599,311%, а предельные значения ставок МФО составляют 799,081%. При этом ПСК по банковским потребительским кредитам составляют 28,250%. «Ассоциация «Россия» прорабатывает различные предложения по выравниванию конкурентных условий на рынке кредитования населения, в том числе и приведенные выше,— сообщила первый вице-президент ассоциации «Россия» Алина Ветрова.— На наш взгляд, долговая нагрузка должна быть посильна для потребителя и сопоставима, независимо от того, кто предоставляет заем — банк или иная финансовая организация».

Подготовкой таких революционных ограничений для рынка МФО депутаты занялись по поручению президента Владимира Путина о снижении закредитованности населения, сообщили собеседники «Ъ». В конце апреля Владимир Путин сравнил МФО в современной России со старухой-процентщицей из романа Достоевского «Преступление и наказание». «Известная бабушка из Достоевского — она очень скромный человек по сравнению с нашими сегодняшними ростовщиками»,— заявил глава государства на заседании президиума Госсовета, посвященном защите прав потребителей. Поправки планируется принять уже в весеннюю сессию Госдумы, и они должны вступить в силу до конца текущего года, сообщил «Ъ» один из собеседников, участвующих в обсуждении проекта.

Владимир Путин, президент РФ, 18 апреляСреди кредиторов есть такие, кто сознательно вводит людей в заблуждение. В результате большинство заемщиков практически неминуемо попадают в долговую спираль

В случае введения требования о предельном размере переплаты в полуторакратном размере, с рынка МФО в первую очередь могут уйти игроки, специализирующиеся на выдачах краткосрочных займов — так называемых займов «до зарплаты» (PDL). Или же им предстоит реорганизация и расширение бизнес-процессов, считают участники рынка. По данным ЦБ на конец третьего квартала 2016 года, доля краткосрочных займов в общем портфеле МФО составляет около 30% (22 млрд руб.).

«Снижение рентабельности бизнеса может ожидать МФО, выдающие короткие займы. Ведение такой нормы сделает их просто неинтересными для самих участников рынка»,— считает председатель совета директоров группы компаний «Русмикрофинанс» Евгений Аболонин. «Подавляющее большинство МФО прекратят работу, а оставшиеся перейдут в сегмент с большими суммами и сроками»,— уверена директор сервиса онлайн-кредитования «Е заем» Лига Трупа.

При этом такие ограничения идут вразрез с развитием финансового регулирования последних лет, когда процентная ставка рассчитывалась исходя из рыночных реалий, считает госпожа Трупа. «Это (ограничение ставки 150% годовых) закроет доступ к заемным средствам для миллионов граждан, использующих сейчас займы до зарплаты»,— возмущается она. По ее словам, МФО выдавать короткие займы по такой ставке не смогут, а банки не станут кредитовать таких клиентов, и страна вернется к времени «черных кредиторов». Одновременно ограничение доходности займов поставит вопрос о поиске фондирования по адекватной стоимости для МФО, указывают участники рынка. «Если МФО переключатся на длинные займы, то им понадобится фондирование на большие сроки, а сейчас привлечь инвесторов в сектор довольно проблематично»,— предупреждает господин Аболонин.

Жесткость таких мер эксперты объясняют тем, что слишком долго ЦБ не вмешивался в регулирование ценовой политики сегмента микрофинансовых организаций, хотя они перешли под надзор еще в 2014 году. «В течение всего этого времени регулятор не проводил более мягкие реформы, и теперь наступил момент, когда нужно решать вопрос более радикально»,— считает глава Международной конфедерации обществ потребителей Дмитрий Янин.

Источник: kommersant.ru

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