Законопроект о выселении должников из единственного жилья поддержал ЦБ

Законопроект о выселении должников из единственного жилья поддержал ЦБ

Фото:
Александр Петросян /

Коммерсантъ

Вчера впервые состоялось публичное обсуждение резонансного законопроекта, позволяющего изымать единственное жилье у должников с долгом от 5% от стоимости недвижимости. Несмотря на то что против выступили Росимущество, Общественная палата и ряд экспертов, ЦБ «концептуально поддержал» проект. Регулятор явно встал на сторону кредиторов, невзирая на проблемы граждан, которые могут лишиться квартиры, например, за долги по потребительским кредитам или алиментам. Минюст обещал доработать документ с учетом всех пожеланий, но на пути проекта готовы встать депутаты.

Проект поправок к Семейному и Гражданскому процессуальным кодексам РФ, а также к закону «Об исполнительном производстве» вчера обсуждался на слушаниях в Общественной палате РФ (ОП РФ) — так называемых нулевых чтениях. Законопроект предлагает разрешить изымать у должников (по всем кредитам и иным долгам) единственную жилплощадь, в случаях если долг составляет 5% и более от стоимости недвижимости. Это касается жилья, площадь которого вдвое превышает социальные нормы (14-18 кв. м на человека в зависимости от региона). Взамен должнику должны выделяться деньги на приобретение жилплощади по социальным нормам, а если он этого не сделал в трехмесячный срок — предоставляется «иное пригодное для проживания жилое помещение». Сейчас разрешено изымать лишь недвижимость, заложенную в рамках ипотечных кредитов (в том числе и единственное жилье) по решению суда.

Адресатами законопроекта могут стать обладатели 10% всех выданных в РФ кредитов, оценил член ОП РФ Леонид Шафиров, сославшись на то, что из совокупного портфеля кредитов физлицам в 10 трлн руб. более 1 трлн руб. просрочено на срок более 90 дней. Квартира может быть изъята и при неуплате алиментов.

По словам замглавы Федеральной службы судебных приставов РФ Татьяны Игнатьевой, в работе ведомства находится 874 тыс. производств о взыскании алиментов на сумму 100 млрд руб. Поднимался вопрос об изъятии квартир по долгам за ЖКХ.

В ходе слушаний многие участники обсуждения выступили против его принятия. Например, в Общественной палате (ОП РФ) сочли, что законопроект затронет беднейшие слои населения. Леонид Шафиров посетовал, что пятипроцентный порог задолженности позволит запускать процедуру изъятия жилья во многих регионах (где квартиры стоят 500-600 тыс. руб.) при долгах свыше 25 тыс. руб. В результате человек может расстаться с квартирой, купив в кредит телевизор и не погасив долг вовремя. Против выступило и Росимущество, указав на то, что выселение должников из единственного жилья может растянуться на неопределенный срок, есть риск оспаривания таких действий со стороны должников, а найти покупателей на изъятые квартиры будет затруднительно. По мнению уполномоченной по правам человека в РФ Татьяны Москальковой, принятие законопроекта в данном виде увеличит число бездомных.

А вот в Банке России заняли противоположную позицию.

Там «концептуально одобрили» законопроект. Присутствовавшая на нулевых чтениях советник юридического департамента ЦБ Любовь Григорьева назвала законопроект «неплохой идеей». Поддержал регулятора и крупнейший кредитор населения — Сбербанк. Представитель банка Евгений Акимов даже поблагодарил Минюст за его разработку.

Впрочем, большинство кредиторов считает, что массовым изъятие единственного жилья не станет — это возможно лишь при существенной сумме долга. «Очевидно, что из-за небольших сумм банку просто невыгодно затевать изъятие имущества,— говорит зампред правления ОТП-банка Сергей Капустин.— Реализация его потребует от банка определенных расходов, которые при небольших долгах просто не окупятся». По его оценкам, интересна подобная процедура может быть при долгах от 1 млн руб. «На мой взгляд, наибольший риск изъятия жилья у физлиц, бравших потребительские кредиты на большие суммы, а также выступавших поручителями по кредитам малому и среднему бизнесу»,— отмечает независимый член совета СРО МИР Александр Арифов. «По кредитам малому и среднему бизнесу поручительство весьма распространено. Думаю, если закон будет принят, это будет один из инструментов для банков»,— соглашается предправления СДМ-банка Максим Солнцев. Впрочем, взыскатели уверены, что риск лишиться квартиры, несомненно, повысит платежную дисциплину. По словам главы совета директоров «Секвойя кредит консолидейшн» Елены Докучаевой, сама возможность изъятия единственного жилья за долги будет стимулом гасить долги. По ее словам, коллекторы могут инициировать изъятие имущества и при относительно небольших долгах, «если дело поставить на поток».

По результатам обсуждения Минюст пообещал доработать законопроект с учетом всех замечаний. По словам представителя ведомства Дениса Новака, пятипроцентный порог может стать «плавающим». «Чем дороже жилье, тем процент должен быть меньше, скажем, 0,5%»,— рассудил господин Новак, добавив, что для дешевого жилья нужно «подходить к отметке в 30-40%». В Минюсте не исключили, что укажут в законопроекте минимальную сумму задолженности в 200 тыс. руб. Впрочем, после доработки законопроекту предстоит пройти одобрение депутатов. А они пока настроены крайне негативно. Глава Комитета Госдумы по финансовым рынкам Анатолий Аксаков заявил «Ъ», что он «категорически против»: «Принять его — это открыть ящик Пандоры, поскольку реализация его на практике может затронуть огромное число граждан».

Источник: kommersant.ru

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