Заемщикам присвоят индивидуальные номера

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Заемщикам присвоят индивидуальные номера

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Провал идеи вписать в кредитные истории СНИЛС заемщиков вынудил ЦБ искать другие идентификаторы. Как выяснил «Ъ», сейчас обсуждается вариант введения сквозной системы уникальных номеров кредитных договоров на всей территории России. Такой подход поможет избежать путаницы, которая возникает из-за дублирования номеров договоров в разных банках. Однако эксперты считают, что это полумеры и необходимо идти по пути однозначной идентификации заемщиков через биометрию.

О том, что ЦБ обсуждает с представителями бюро кредитных историй идею внедрения уникального идентификатора кредитного договора, рассказали «Ъ» несколько участников рынка. Система должна быть сквозной по всей России, главная ее цель — избежать дублирования номеров кредитных договоров различных банков, чтобы по номеру можно было однозначно идентифицировать конкретный кредит. «Предполагается, что такой номер будет включаться в кредитную историю заемщика»,— пояснил «Ъ» один из собеседников. Возможно, это будет сродни практике, применяемой при выпуске банковских карт: когда каждый банк получает определенный перечень доступных только ему номеров.

Чтобы навести порядок в кредитных историях и избежать путаницы в клиентах и их кредитах, ЦБ сначала планировал использовать СНИЛС (лицевой счет, содержащийся в свидетельстве обязательного пенсионного страхования). СНИЛС на данный момент является фактически единственным уникальным идентификатором граждан — в отличие от паспорта, СНИЛС человек получает один раз, и он остается неизменным в течение всей жизни. Предполагалось, что кредиторы наполнят титульные части кредитных историй дополнительными данными о СНИЛС, поскольку запрос данных без СНИЛС станет невозможен. Норма должна была вступить в силу 1 января этого года.

Однако Пенсионный фонд России (ПФР), который обладает полной базой данных СНИЛС, несмотря на длительные переговоры, категорически отказался делиться информацией с банками, что фактически лишило их возможности исполнять данное требование (см. «Ъ» от 31 октября 2016 года). Проблема так и осталась нерешенной.

Теперь ЦБ должен изобрести новый идентификатор. Для этого планируется внести поправки в закон «О кредитных историях», которые наделят регулятора правом самостоятельно определять содержание титульной части кредитной истории. Как уточнил собеседник «Ъ», знакомый с ситуацией, в закон планируется включить следующую формулировку: «Порядок формирования титульной части кредитной истории и ее состав устанавливаются Банком России». Сейчас содержание этой части составляют паспортные данные гражданина, а также СНИЛС и ИНН как необязательная информация. Именно в рамках разработки идентификатора заемщика и обсуждается внедрение системы уникальных номеров кредитных договоров, указывают собеседники «Ъ». В ЦБ сообщили, что сейчас обсуждается ряд вопросов, связанных с рынком БКИ, но конкретные комментарии давать преждевременно.

Участники рынка считают, что однозначная идентификация заемщиков необходима. Однако, по их мнению, регулятор, решая эту задачу, идет не по тому пути, что может привести к усложнению процесса кредитования. «Единый идентификатор нужен для того, чтобы исключить любые ошибки, связанные с кредитными историями, чтобы путаница была невозможна,— комментирует гендиректор Объединенного кредитного бюро Даниэль Зеленский.— Мы, как БКИ, разумеется, выступаем за любой инструмент, который способствует улучшению качества данных. Однако идею нового идентификатора сложно реализовать на практике — это требует внедрения новых технологий и затратно для всех участников процесса».

При этом эксперты уверены, что идти по пути цифровых кодов заемщика или его кредитов не стоит. Сведение цифровой идентичности лишь к одному численно-буквенному сочетанию резко увеличивает риски цифрового мошенничества, опасается исполнительный вице-президент Ассоциации российских банков Эльман Мехтиев. «Возможно, что, вычищая данные, следует отказаться от идеи поиска какого-либо нового единственного всеобъемлющего номера,— отмечает господин Мехтиев.— Полагаю, следует использовать существующую инфраструктуру и ориентироваться на динамическое сочетание различных биометрических показателей как более надежного инструмента аутентификации личности». Модернизируя существующие системы, следует придерживаться современных технологий, а не опираться на старые, соглашается аналитик ИК «Алор» Кирилл Яковенко. «Впрочем, тут стоит учитывать, что биометрические технологии сейчас по карману лишь крупным банкам, и говорить об их повсеместном применении не приходится,— продолжает он.— Поэтому логично поэтапное внедрение их и в кредитные истории».

Источник: kommersant.ru

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