У банков кончаются новые клиенты

У банков кончаются новые клиенты

Рисунок:
Виктор Чумачев /
Коммерсантъ

Доля кредитов заемщикам без кредитной истории в совокупном объеме выдач по итогам 2016 года опустилась ниже 20%. При этом, если в 2015 году более половины ссуд «новичкам» банки выдавали через кредитки, риски по которым контролировать проще, в 2016 году доля таких выдач снизилась. Новых качественных клиентов, готовых взять кредит, становится все меньше, при этом многие опасаются сложно структурированных карточных продуктов.

Объединенное кредитное бюро (ОКБ, входит в топ-3 БКИ) проанализировало структуру выдач кредитов в 2016 году на основе данных 232,5 млн кредитных историй 66,5 млн граждан. Всего за прошлый год банки выдали 26,5 млн новых розничных ссуд на сумму около 3,3 трлн руб. При этом на кредиты новым заемщикам (без кредитной истории) пришлось лишь 19%, в то время как годом ранее — 22%, а в 2014 году — 24%. «Снижение доли кредитов, выданных новым заемщикам, связано с истощением базы новых клиентов,— полагает зампред правления Райффайзенбанка Андрей Степаненко.— Большинство граждан, которые хотели взять кредиты, это уже сделали». По прогнозам гендиректора Frank Research Group Юрия Грибанова, количество новых кредитов в общем портфеле и дальше будет сокращаться, поскольку проникновение банковских услуг, в том числе и кредитных, приближается к своему физическому пределу.

Теперь банкиры рады новым заемщикам, и отсутствие кредитной истории уже не воспринимается ими как минус. В пресс-службе ВТБ отметили, что отсутствие кредитной истории не является стоп-фактором в получении кредита и в большинстве случаев не трактуется как негативная информация. «У нас уровень одобрения по кредитам заемщикам без истории составляет примерно 30-35% в зависимости от продукта,— говорит Андрей Степаненко.— Если это зарплатный клиент или он пользовался счетами в банке, то 50-60%».

В условиях сокращения числа новых заемщиков банки вынуждены считаться с их предпочтениями. Самим банкам с точки зрения рисков комфортнее выдавать клиентам без истории кредитки. «Кредитная карта — оптимальный с точки зрения банка первый продукт для клиента без кредитной истории,— говорит старший вице-президент ВТБ 24 Андрей Гулецкий.— Например, если клиент оценен как высокорисковый, можно ограничивать лимит при выдаче с последующим его увеличением для тех, кто обслуживает свою задолженность в срок». Доля выдач ссуд новичкам через карты растет в кризисные периоды. Так, если в 2014 году на кредитки пришлось 42% всех выданных новичкам ссуд, то в 2015 году на фоне ухудшения экономической ситуации и платежеспособности граждан — 51%. По итогам 2016 года этот показатель снизился: на карточки пришлось менее половины (48%) выдач гражданам без историй. По мнению гендиректора ОКБ Даниэля Зеленского, в 2016 году рынок начал восстанавливаться после кризиса, что сказалось на снижении доли кредитных карт и росте доли кредитов наличными. На кредиты наличными пришлось 33% всех выдач клиентам без историй.

Такое перераспределение долей отражает и предпочтения самих заемщиков. Если брать совокупные выдачи за 2016 год, 81% которых приходится на заемщиков с историей, то в них явным лидером выглядят кредиты наличными — 45% и лишь 30% приходится на кредитки. «Кредитная карта — более сложный продукт для заемщика, который не имеет четких сроков погашения и невыгоден, если нужны наличные деньги,— говорит аналитик «Алор брокер» Кирилл Яковенко.— Те же, кто избегал кредитов и вынужден обратиться к ним впервые, выбирают продукт даже более тщательно, чем бывалые заемщики». Вероятно, добавляет Андрей Степаненко, стоит ожидать роста портфеля выдач наличных среди новых кредитов.

Источник: kommersant.ru

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