Секьюритизировать ипотеку предлагают по-новому

Секьюритизировать ипотеку предлагают по-новому

Фото:
Олег Харсеев /
Коммерсантъ

СРО ПАРТАД разработала концепцию применения технологий распределенных баз данных для рынка ипотечных ценных бумаг. По мысли авторов, организация процесса секьюритизации ипотеки на основе блокчейна сделает всю цепочку действий прозрачной для всех сторон сделки, исключит риски мошенничества и ошибок, ведущих к судебным процессам. Эксперты признают схему интересной, однако считают, что ее реализация может быть затруднена из-за отсутствия действующих норм законодательства относительно электронных закладных.

Представители инфраструктурных компаний финансового рынка предложили перевести процессы, сопутствующие выпуску и продаже ипотечных ценных бумаг, на технологию блокчейн. Этот вопрос обсуждался на недавнем заседании комитета ПАРТАД по финансовым технологиям (КФТ). «Ъ» ознакомился с концепцией проекта. В ее основе лежит идея полного доступа всех сторон сделки ко всем ее этапам, что возможно обеспечить при помощи технологии распределенных реестров (баз данных). На первом этапе заемщик и кредитор оформляют в электронном виде закладную, которая отражает все условия кредитного договора и договора об ипотеке. Закладную подписывают электронными подписями все должники и залогодатели. Обязательства по ипотеке возникают после регистрации закладной в Росреестре. Доступ к этой записи получают все стороны процесса — должники, залогодержатели, кредитор, Росреестр, а также спецдепозитарии. Причем физическая передача документов в спецдепозитарий не потребуется, так как все документы существуют только в электронном виде. Все изменения — оплаты по обязательству, начисления штрафов, пеней и т. п.— фиксируются в блоке дополнительной информации.

«Изначально законом «Об ипотеке» было предусмотрено, что в закладной будут указываться все платежи, которые совершил заемщик. Но на практике этого почти никто не делает. Теоретически банк может продать кредит со значительно большей суммой, чем он есть на самом деле»,— говорит гендиректор депозитарной компании «Регион» Анна Зайцева. Таким образом, по ее словам, снижается риск ошибок и намеренных фальсификаций, ведущих к судебным проблемам у заемщиков. «Нельзя будет выписать несколько закладных на одного заемщика — он не акцептует своей ЭЦП такой документ. Нельзя будет что-либо вписать в документ без его участия»,— поясняет она.

Сергей Швецов, первый зампред Банка России, 2 июняБлокчейн — это одна из небольших технологий, которая, наверное, через несколько лет сможет показать коммерческую эффективность, но пока таких доказательств нет

Технология распределенных баз данных, считают авторы проекта, позволит оптимизировать процесс секьюритизации ипотеки. При формировании ипотечного покрытия включение той или иной закладной в состав покрытия акцептует при помощи своей ЭЦП спецдепозитарий. С этого момента никакая новая информация в закладной не может быть добавлена без его участия. «Секьюритизация для спецдепозитариев в нынешнем виде — это огромный блок информации, огромные трудозатраты по составлению реестра закладных, по их оцифровыванию, по проверке их качества. Диджитализация процесса значительно снизит затраты ресурсов спецдепов»,— уверена госпожа Зайцева. Кроме того, для спецдепозитариев снижаются репутационные и регуляторные риски, связанные с ошибками в оценке качества бумажных закладных. Так, в октябре 2016 года случай с обнаружением в спецдепозитарии Сбербанка фальшивых закладных, принадлежащих Инвестторгбанку, привел к масштабной проверке крупнейших участников рынка ипотечных ценных бумаг (см. «Ъ» от 27 октября 2016 года).

Затраты могут снизиться и для других сторон, участвующих в секьюритизации. «Уменьшаются издержки на подачу на регистрацию в Росреестр, на смену залогодержателя, внесение изменений в кредитный договор и закладную»,— отмечает первый зампред правления Банка жилищного финансирования Игорь Жигунов. Кроме того, по его словам, использование технологии блокчейн делает всю конструкцию сделки прозрачнее, информацию можно получать в одном месте и от первоисточника.

По словам опрошенных «Ъ» экспертов, технически реализация проекта не представляет особых сложностей, однако все упирается в правовую основу. «В законодательстве даже нет понятия «электронная закладная»»,— сетует представитель одного из банков—участников ипотечного рынка. В то же время, по словам главы аналитического центра «Русипотека» Сергея Гордейко, в случае перевода секьюритизации ипотеки на электронные рельсы закладная вообще может оказаться лишним звеном. «Права кредитора закреплены в Росреестре в виде записи о залоге. А обеспечить надежность ипотечной ценной бумаги можно путем предоставления доступа к электронной записи в этом реестре спецдепу»,— рассуждает он.

По информации «Ъ», концепция была направлена для ознакомления в ЦБ. «Банк России рассмотрит концепцию СРО ПАРТАД после того, как получит данные предложения»,— сообщили в пресс-службе регулятора.

Источник: kommersant.ru

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