Рынок раскритиковал поправки к закону о потребительском кредите

Рынок раскритиковал поправки к закону о потребительском кредите

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Идея Минюста защитить заемщиков-граждан от непомерных неустоек, выставляемых кредиторами, натолкнулась на жесткую критику банковского сообщества. Участники рынка обещают рост неплатежей по кредитам, замедление потребительского кредитования и прочие беды для рынка. Неожиданно в этом вопросе участники рынка заручились поддержкой регулятора.

На этой неделе банкиры выступили с резкой критикой по поводу законопроекта Минюста, вносящего поправки в ст. 5 закона «О потребительском кредите (займе)». Законопроект предлагает очередность, согласно которой сумма текущего платежа по потребительскому кредиту (займу), в случае если она недостаточна для полного исполнения обязательств заемщика, погашается в следующей очередности: сначала проценты, далее основная сумма долга и уже после неустойка (пени, штраф), иные платежи. Сейчас же очередность иная: сначала гасится просроченный долг по процентам, потом просроченная задолженность по кредиту, далее неустойка и уже в последнюю очередь проценты и тело долга за текущий период. При этом очередность погашения задолженности заемщика, предусмотренная настоящей частью, не может быть изменена соглашением сторон, отмечается в тексте документа. Согласно письму Ассоциации российских банков в Минюст, новый подход приведет «к снижению мотивированности заемщиков по надлежащему исполнению своих обязательств, к фактической невозможности реализации принципа гражданско-правовой ответственности и к существенному увеличению нагрузки на судебную систему».

Банки уверены, что реализация этого проекта приведет неминуемо к неплатежам. «Фактически неустойка потеряет весь смысл, ее нереально будет взыскать во внесудебном порядке»,— отмечает глава департамента правового обеспечения ХКФ-банка Александр Гонтаренко. При этом схожие правила очередности существуют в отношении корпоративных займов (согласно ст. 319 ГК), отмечает Александр Гонтаренко, но банки в договоре имеют возможность установить иную очередность, тогда как данный проект такую возможность прямо запрещает.

В Минюсте воздержались от комментариев по поводу мнения рынка, сославшись на то, что не успели с ним ознакомиться. Однако в данном вопросе важно мнение регулятора отрасли — ЦБ, а регулятор законодательную инициативу Минюста «оценивает как требующую серьезного обсуждения и оценки последствий». «В вопросе потребительского кредитования необходимо сохранять сбалансированный подход,— добавили в пресс-службе Банка России.— В настоящее время законодатель обеспечил такой баланс, предусмотрев систему норм, направленных на защиту прав потребителей, в том числе ограничивающих размер неустойки (штрафа, пени) по договору потребительского кредита (займа) и полной стоимости потребительского кредита (займа)».

Данный законопроект явно на руку заемщикам, так как позволит им существенно сэкономить на погашении долга. «При решении вопросов в судебном порядке суды часто идут навстречу заемщикам и существенно снижают размер неустойки, требуемый банком,— отмечает партнер Lidings Андрей Зеленин.— Так что у банка велик шанс вообще ее не получить». Впрочем, именно в этом и был замысел Минюста. В пояснительной записке к проекту прямо сказано, что новый подход позволит суду снижать неустойку в случае ее явной несоразмерности по заявлению должника или по инициативе суда в деле по иску кредитора к должнику о взыскании неустойки. «Это особенно актуально для задолженности по кредитным картам, где по новым правилам добиться своевременного внесения денежных средств будет нереально, как и судиться из-за каждой неустойки»,— считает директор юридического департамента Юникредит-банка Наталья Окунева.

Есть вопросы к документу и у правозащитников. «Цель документа ясна: исключить ситуации, когда человек гасит задолженность перед кредитором и думает, что у него все в порядке, а на самом деле у него из-за списания неустойки банком остался непогашенный долг, на который продолжают начисляться проценты,— рассуждает руководитель проекта ОНФ «За права заемщиков» Виктор Климов.— Однако реализация этого замысла вызывает вопросы». Озабочены данной инициативой и депутаты Госдумы. «Поправки к законам не должны разрушать рынок и лишать доступа к заемным средствам добросовестных заемщиков, у которых увеличатся риски неполучения кредита,— отмечает глава комитета Госдумы по финансовому рынку Анатолий Аксаков.— Очень надеюсь, что в отношении данного законопроекта победит не чья-либо позиция, а здравый смысл».

Источник: kommersant.ru

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