Небольшие кредиторы просят избавить их от инкассации

Небольшие кредиторы просят избавить их от инкассации

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Небольшие кредиторы просят избавить их от инкассации

Фото:
Александр Коряков /
Коммерсантъ

Банк России рассматривает возможность смягчения требований для некредитных финансовых организаций — ломбардов, микрофинансовых организаций (МФО) и кредитных потребительских кооперативов (КПК). Участники рынка просят отменить «кабальное» требование выдавать новые займы лишь из средств, снятых с расчетного счета. Для этого кредиторам приходится проводить инкассацию средств, что слишком дорого для небольших участников рынка. Попытки же обойти требование уже вызвали многочисленные претензии налоговиков.

Как сообщили «Ъ» представители объединений ломбардов, микрофинансовых организаций и кредитных потребительских кооперативов, в последнее время участники рынка стали часто сталкиваться с претензиями налоговых органов, которые штрафуют их за нарушение кассовой дисциплины.

Согласно указанию ЦБ 3073-У «Об осуществлении наличных расчетов», займы можно выдавать только за счет наличных средств, снятых с банковского счета. «Для кредитора это означает следующее: клиент возвращает ему заем, эти средства инкассируются, зачисляются на счет в банк и только потом могут быть использованы для выдачи новых займов»,— пояснил глава СРО МиР Андрей Паранич. При этом, по словам председателя Ассоциации развития ломбардов Сергея Соковникова, банки берут комиссию как за внесение денег, так и за снятие с расчетного счета, что может составлять до 3% за одну операцию. В итоге на банковских комиссиях кредитор теряет 4-6% и, соответственно, включает эту сумму в ставку для клиентов.

Проблема ненова. Участники рынка неоднократно обращались к регулятору с просьбой отменить это требование. «Мы сдаем ежемесячную отчетность в ЦБ, которая позволяет контролировать денежные потоки через те же ломбарды, считаем подобный запрет излишним»,— говорит Сергей Соковников. Однако этот вопрос курирует департамент финансового мониторинга и валютного контроля, который обоснованно видит в небольших кредиторах потенциальный источник черного нала, уточняет глава СРО кредитных кооперативов «Содействие» Марат Овчиян.

До активного вмешательства налоговых органов небольшие кредиторы нередко игнорировали требования ЦБ о проведении денег через счет, предпочитая в случае выявления нарушений заплатить штраф (максимально 50 тыс. руб.). Регулятор фактически не проводит проверок соблюдения данного требования, рассказывают участники рынка. В результате некоторые кредиторы и вовсе забыли о норме. «Мы были уверены, что являемся некредитной банковской организацией и потому вправе выдавать займы из имеющихся средств, но в итоге оказались оштрафованы ИФНС, пытались оспорить в суде и проиграли»,— рассказывает предправления КПК «Вельский» Александр Титовский.

Активность налоговиков в борьбе с обходом правил вынудила рынок вновь поднять вопрос на уровне ЦБ. «В настоящее время Банк России ведет анализ целесообразности внесения изменения в данное указание для снижения издержек МФО, КПК и ломбардов в части запрета выдачи денежных средств своим пайщикам / клиентам только за счет средств, полученных с банковского счета»,— сообщили в пресс-службе ЦБ. Вопрос о применении требования будет поднят на заседании экспертного совета по микрофинансированию и кредитной кооперации, которое состоится 14 июня. Участники рынка надеются, что им удастся убедить регулятора все же разрешить им выдавать займы из полученных от возврата займов наличных средств.

Пока ЦБ оценивает ситуацию, кредиторам остается только разбираться с налоговиками в судах, где практика складывается неоднозначная. Известны случаи, когда ФНС проигрывали даже крупные МФО. «Например, в споре МФО «Срочноденьги» суд апелляционной инстанции поддержал доводы налоговиков, что выдача займов населению из денежных средств от погашения займов — состав правонарушения по ст. 15.1 КоАП»,— отмечает юрист адвокатского бюро «Казаков и партнеры» Елена Муратова.

Есть и прямо противоположные решения. Госпожа Муратова поясняет, что суды «далеко не всегда» становятся на сторону ФНС, есть решения, когда суд приходил к выводу о неправомерности штрафов за нарушение п. 4 указания N3073-У как за нарушение оборота денежной наличности.

Источник: kommersant.ru

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