Меняется система расчета предельных ставок по кредитам

Меняется система расчета предельных ставок по кредитам

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Анатолий Жданов /
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ЦБ неожиданно поддержал давнюю инициативу банковского сообщества — ограничить влияние крупнейших игроков рынка на формирование общерыночных предельно допустимых ставок по кредитам населению, выяснил «Ъ». Доля рынка банка при расчете ЦБ полной стоимости кредита (ПСК) будет ограничена 20%. По факту это окажет влияние лишь на учет ставок Сбербанка, доля которого на рынке потребительского кредитования более 30%. Остальные игроки до планки 20% пока не дотягивают. Но даже такое ограничение позволит большинству банков выдавать более дорогие, чем сейчас, кредиты.

Планируется, что законопроект, ограничивающий долю крупнейших игроков при формировании регулятором ПСК, будет рассмотрен Госдумой уже летом, рассказали «Ъ» два депутата, а также два банкира, знакомые с ходом обсуждения документа. Речь идет о поправках к закону «О потребительском кредите (займе)» в части правил расчета ПСК. Доля каждого банка при расчете ПСК будет ограничена 20%, уточнили собеседники «Ъ».

ПСК применяется регулятором для ограничения ставок по розничным кредитам со второй половины 2015 года. Банки при кредитовании не имеют права превышать рассчитываемый ЦБ уровень более чем на треть. ПСК включает ставку, страховку и иные платежи по кредиту. ЦБ ежеквартально рассчитывает значения ПСК на основании мониторинга реальных процентных ставок банков, МФО, КПК и др. (средневзвешенное значение с учетом доли рынка не менее чем по 100 крупнейшим кредиторам по соответствующей категории либо не менее чем по одной трети кредиторов).

Поскольку при расчете ПСК учитывается доля рынка, банковское сообщество давно добивалось введения ограничений, так как крупные банки существенно понижают общий уровень ставок.

Еще в письме ассоциации региональных банков «Россия» в Федеральную антимонопольную службу (ФАС) от 2016 года было указано, что такое влияние «негативно сказывается на конкуренции» и приведет к вытеснению с рынка других кредиторов. Еще раньше банковское лобби в лице Ассоциации российских банков предлагало ограничить долю рынка при расчете ПСК в 10%. Такую цифру поддержала и ФАС, поскольку именно с этого уровня положение игрока на рынке считается доминирующим.

Но решение оставалось за ЦБ. «Регулятор почти год тормозил принятие нормы и в итоге согласился только на 20%»,— сообщил «Ъ» собеседник, знакомый с ходом обсуждения законопроекта. «Банк России не возражает против поправок к федеральному закону «О потребительском кредите (займе)», которые ограничат долю крупных банков при расчете ПСК до 20%,— подтвердили «Ъ» в пресс-службе ЦБ.— Данная инициатива дорабатывается уже больше года, до ее принятия в окончательном виде преждевременно говорить о том, как изменится расчет ПСК. Изменения будут незначительны». Сейчас долю на рынке потребительского кредитования более 20% имеет лишь Сбербанк. Так, согласно данным Frank Research Group на 1 мая, в сегменте «кредиты наличными» Сбербанк занимал 32,2%, в сегменте «кредитные карты» — 39,7%. В Сбербанке отказались от комментариев.

Хотя поправки еще не приняты, банкиры уже строят радужные планы. «Если такая норма будет принята, банки получат возможность варьировать ставками в большем диапазоне, в том числе выдавать кредиты категории «заемщики», которые пока не пропускает наша риск-модель»,— отметил председатель правления ОТП-банка Илья Чижевский. По словам собеседников «Ъ», предварительные расчеты показывают: ограничение доли одного Сбербанка при расчете ПСК даст прибавку 1-2 процентных пунктов. Среднерыночные значение ПСК, по данным ЦБ, для договоров, заключаемых в третьем квартале 2017 года, по кредитным картам достигают 29,6%, по кредитам наличными — 26,5%.

В то же время банкиры надеются, что «дискуссия будет продолжена». «Данная поправка, безусловно, важный шаг к созданию справедливых конкурентных условий, но этого недостаточно,— считает председатель правления банка из топ-50.— Надо добиться, например, также снижения влияния на значения ПСК кредитов зарплатным клиентам, которые значительно более дешевые, чем ссуды клиентам с улицы».

Источник: kommersant.ru

177 комментариев

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