Кредитные истории раздадут через одно окно

Кредитные истории раздадут через одно окно

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Олег Харсеев /

Коммерсантъ

В рамках введения индикатора долговой нагрузки граждан ЦБ обсуждает с бюро кредитных историй (БКИ) изменение механизма работы. Принципиальным является получение кредиторами полной информации о долговой нагрузке клиента — на основе данных всех БКИ. При этом обращение и получение информации кредитором должны осуществляться через одно окно или БКИ (по выбору банка) и Центральный каталог кредитных историй (ЦККИ). Сложности в реализации такого подхода видят и крупные и небольшие БКИ. Но ЦБ настроен серьезно, так что скоро все долги граждан, в том числе небанковские, станут явными.

О том, что ЦБ обсуждает с участниками рынка изменение механизма работы БКИ с кредиторами, рассказали «Ъ» участники совещаний в ЦБ. Собеседники «Ъ» указывают, что в настоящее время обсуждаются два основных варианта. Логика обоих в том, чтобы кредитор, обращаясь в одно БКИ или ЦККИ, получал данные от всех действующих бюро, которые соберет первое БКИ или ЦККИ. На рынке работает 16 бюро кредитных историй. Однако банки традиционно сотрудничают с тремя или менее, поскольку лидеры рынка — НБКИ, «Эквифакс», ОКБ — консолидируют информацию более чем о 95% заемщиков.

В пресс-службе ЦБ «Ъ» сообщили, что «данный вопрос находится в стадии обсуждения. С учетом международного опыта и специфики деятельности российского рынка кредитования рассматриваются различные подходы к определению дохода и обязательств заемщика». В конце прошлого года президент Владимир Путин дал поручение подготовить предложения по ограничению прав кредиторов на истребование просроченной задолженности по договору потребительского кредита (займа), если на момент его заключения соотношение размера ежемесячного дохода заемщика и размера его ежемесячного совокупного долга превышало предельное значение. Поручение адресовано правительству и Банку России. Срок исполнения — 1 марта 2017 года. Фактически речь идет о введении индикатора долговой нагрузки на граждан — DTI (debt-to-income). БКИ должны стать источником данных о совокупном долге граждан, отмечают собеседники «Ъ», участвовавшие в обсуждениях с ЦБ.

В НБКИ отказались от комментариев. В двух других бюро из тройки крупнейших настроены скептически. «Рассматриваемая регулятором схема, на наш взгляд, значительно увеличит время ответа на запрос банков и негативно скажется на всем процессе выдачи кредита, при этом не окажет значительного влияния на объем информации о закредитованности гражданина,— отметил гендиректор ОКБ Даниэль Зеленский.— Сейчас мы не видим практической пользы от внедрения рассматриваемой схемы». По словам гендиректора БКИ «Эквифакс» Олега Лагуткина, в обеих схемах все запросы передаются всем бюро, что повышает риски утечки информации.

«Через год (при сохранении данных) в каждом из шестнадцати БКИ будут персональные данные практически о всех кредитоспособных россиянах,— отмечает гендиректор «Эквифакс».— Утечка это лишь вопрос времени».

Небольшие бюро идею ЦБ воспринимают позитивно, что неудивительно, поскольку она повысит количество запросов и соответственно доходы БКИ. Региональные игроки сами пытались наладить обмен данными, но цены крупных бюро им не по карману. «Нашим бюро предпринимались попытки наладить отношения с другими БКИ,— говорит заместитель гендиректора «Межрегионального БКИ» Юрий Косинцев.— Но мы наткнулись на финансовый барьер, московские бюро запрашивают нереальные суммы». «Разделяя позицию ЦБ, мы считаем, что краеугольным камнем здесь станут не технологические препоны, а нежелание крупных бюро участвовать в этом информационном обмене»,— добавляет гендиректор «Столичного кредитного бюро» Риго Овчиян. «Рисков мы не видим, каждое бюро обеспечивает защиту информации в соответствии с законом и лицензией защиты информации ФСТЭК РФ»,— отмечают в БКИ «Южное».

Кредиторы, для которых, собственно, и предлагается собирать информацию, особого смысла в этом не видят. «Мы работаем с тремя ведущими БКИ, и запрос в региональные бюро для нас, в принципе, не целесообразен и не добавляет какой-то значимой информации,— говорит зампред правления Абсолют-банка Татьяна Ушкова.— Платить дополнительно за подобный сервис мы не готовы». Если появятся новые сервисы, которые на единицу потраченных средств будут предоставлять больше информации, мы будет это приветствовать, добавляет зампред правления ОТП-банка Сергей Капустин. При этом банкиры опасаются, что унификация информации негативно скажется на качестве сервиса бюро. «Если банки будут передавать информацию во все БКИ и они будут иметь одинаковый набор данных и сервисов, то зачем нужны все эти бюро, достаточно будет одного»,— говорит Сергей Капустин. В мировой практике есть пример, когда вся информация собирается в одном БКИ, отмечает Татьяна Ушкова. «Конечно, это удобно, но есть риск снижения качества услуг из-за отсутствия конкуренции».

Если для банков объединение данных всех БКИ не критично, то гражданам новый подход ЦБ вряд ли понравится — ведь все тайные долги, надежно сохраненные небольшими БКИ, которые не интересны большинству банков, могут стать явными.

Источник: kommersant.ru

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