ФНС разъяснила последствия новой схемы взыскания долгов

ФНС разъяснила последствия новой схемы взыскания долгов

Фото:
Александр Коряков /
Коммерсантъ

Федеральная налоговая служба (ФНС) решила пресечь схему, которую стали активно использовать микрофинансовые организации (МФО) при взыскании долгов. Вчера ведомство выпустило разъяснение о том, что кредиторы вводят своих заемщиков в заблуждение, чтобы добиться хотя бы частичного погашения долгов. Вопреки заверениям кредиторов, экономии на налогах не произойдет.

На сайте www.nalog.ru вчера было обнародовано сообщение ФНС, в котором налоговики фактически обвинили МФО в предоставлении заемщикам неверной информации. Вмешательство налоговой службы потребовалось после того, как стало известно о новом способе взыскания долгов, который применяют МФО. Кредиторы предлагали должникам рассчитать размер НДФЛ, который возникнет в случае списания долга, и в качестве варианта урегулирования задолженности заемщику предлагалось гасить долг и часть процентов с обещанием простить остальное (см. «Ъ» от 18 апреля). «Для того чтобы вернуть долг по кредиту, микрофинансовые организации распространяют неверную информацию о взыскании налоговыми органами с должников НДФЛ в размере больше суммы прощенного долга,— говорится в сообщении ФНС.— Заемщикам говорят, что налог будет исчислен с максимальной суммы, то есть с суммы прощенного долга с учетом всех начисленных процентов». МФО, как следует из сообщения, обязаны сообщать в налоговые органы о невозможности удержать налог в случае прощения долга. В этом случае сама служба направит должнику налоговое уведомление об уплате налога. В сообщении ФНС уточняется: при возникновении любых вопросов лучше обращаться на горячую линию службы.

Новый порядок уплаты НДФЛ применяется в отношении доходов, полученных в 2016 году и далее. Доходы, полученные (в результате списания долга) до 2016 года, заемщик должен был самостоятельно задекларировать и уплатить налог. С 2016 года порядок изменился — заемщику больше не нужно декларировать такие доходы. Информацию об этом налоговая инспекция получает от кредитора и сама направляет налоговое уведомление.

МФО обосновывали свой новый метод взыскания тем, что в случае длительного займа сумма процентов может в несколько раз превышать тело долга. При частичном урегулировании задолженности заемщик, по логике МФО, может сэкономить на налогах. «При длительной просрочке размер долга с процентами может значительно превысить размер тела долга, и в итоге размер НДФЛ (13% от суммы долга плюс проценты.— «Ъ») будет больше займа»,— объясняет гендиректор сервиса онлайн-займов «Робот Займер» Сергей Седов. Однако ФНС категорично указала: НДФЛ «исчисляется с суммы прощенного долга по ставке 13% и в принципе никогда не может превышать саму сумму прощенного долга как объекта налогообложения». Собеседник «Ъ» в Минфине также указал, что при списании долга и процентов в полном объеме у заемщика будет налогооблагаемый доход в размере всей задолженности. Официально в ФНС не ответили на запрос «Ъ», однако собеседник в ведомстве подтвердил: служба находится в подчинении Минфина и поэтому его позицию разделяет.

Впрочем, сами участники рынка признают: и сама схема списания на деле реализуется не так, как это декларируют «заботливые» кредиторы. «По факту списания долгов заемщикам происходят чрезвычайно редко,— отметил глава СРО МиР Андрей Паранич.— Для самой МФО это крайне невыгодная с точки зрения налогов процедура, к тому же очень длительная и трудозатратная». Чаще всего долг продается коллекторам, уточняет он. «То есть МФО обещают заемщикам то, что выполнять не намерены, а это имеет признаки нарушения законодательства и может грозить штрафом от 20 тыс. до 200 тыс. руб.»,— рассуждает финансовый директор компании «Е заем» Мамука Ризаев. «Закон N230-ФЗ считает недопустимым введение должника в заблуждение относительно последствий неисполнения обязательств, в том числе возможности применения к должнику мер административного воздействия»,— отметил он. «Мы просто предупреждаем: вообще не платить по взятому кредиту не получится, даже если мы долг простим — придется уплатить налог государству,— утверждает гендиректор МФО «Честное слово» Андрей Петков.— И тот факт, что налоговики готовы консультировать граждан по данному вопросу, нам только на руку — ФНС фактически подтвердит наши расчеты».

Источник: kommersant.ru

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