ЦБ усилит контроль за кэптивными МФО

ЦБ усилит контроль за кэптивными МФО

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Евгений Павленко /

Коммерсантъ

Ужесточение регулирования в сфере потребительского кредитования вынуждает банки создавать микрофинансовые организации (МФО) и кредитовать население через них. По итогам третьего квартала связанные с кредитными организациями компании заняли четверть микрофинансового рынка. Регулятор намерен ужесточить подходы к регулированию МФО, связанных с банками как юридически, так и по экономическим основаниям.

По состоянию на 30 сентября на рынке микрофинансирования насчитывалось не менее 18 банковских МФО, отмечается в обзоре финансовой стабильности Банка России. Всего, согласно реестру ЦБ, на рынке более 2,8 тыс. действующих МФО. Таким образом, число связанных с банками игроков (к ним ЦБ относит МФО, аффилированные с кредитными организациями, как по юридическим, так и экономическим основаниям) в общем количестве МФО незначительно. В то же время доля банковских МФО на микрофинансовом рынке стремительно растет — за год она увеличилась с 8,3% до 24,1%.

Характерно, что драйверами роста стали несколько банковских МФО, аффилированных с крупными розничными банками, отмечается в обзоре. Самой крупной из банковских МФО является «ОТП Финанс». Компания принадлежит венгерской OTP Group, которая также владеет в России ОТП-банком. «ОТП Финанс» по итогам первого полугодия стала лидером не только среди банковских, но и среди всех МФО по размеру портфеля займов (см. «Ъ» от 29 августа). Аффилированные МФО есть у Тинькофф-банка и ХКФ-банка. В ХКФ-банке указали, что юридически ни одна МФО с банком сейчас не связана. «Есть МФО «Купи не копи», которую банк использует для своих пилотных проектов, но формально никаких связей на уровне акционеров между структурами нет»,— сообщили в банке. В Тинькофф-банке не ответили на запрос «Ъ».

По мнению ЦБ, активности банков в освоении микрофинансового рынка способствовало ужесточение банковского регулирования в сегменте потребительского кредитования. Основным фактором стало введение повышенных коэффициентов риска по розничным потребительским кредитам. Они используются для необеспеченных потребительских кредитов, предоставленных после 1 января 2014 года, с полной стоимостью кредита (ПСК) от 35% годовых при расчете нормативов. При этом начиная с 1 августа 2016 года повышенные коэффициенты риска распространяются на кредиты с ПСК от 25%. За третий квартал 2016 года банковские МФО в основном выдали микрозаймы в диапазоне ПСК от 25% до 65%, указывают в ЦБ. Подтолкнуть банки к освоению микрофинансового рынка могли и повышенные требования к формированию резервов по необеспеченным кредитам физлиц, отмечается в обзоре.

Пока существенный рост доли банковских МФО участников микрофинансового рынка не слишком пугает. «Банковские МФО работают, как правило, в двух сегментах — займы на приобретение товаров в торговых сетях (POS) и займы на срок свыше года,— говорит заместитель директора СРО «МиР» Андрей Паранич.— В то же время большинство МФО работает в других сегментах, в которых банковские «дочки» не представлены, например займы на короткий срок». Таким образом, в настоящее время от конкуренции с банковскими МФО страдает небольшое количество участников микрофинансового рынка, продолжает он. «Основной риск для независимых МФО — расширение сегментов микрофинансового рынка, охваченных банковскими «дочками»,— продолжает господин Паранич.— Такой риск есть, но пока он не реализован».

А вот регулятор обеспокоен тем, что банки, создавая МФО, обходят ограничения. И хотя пока выданные связанными МФО займы составляют лишь 1,5% (20,6 млрд руб.) от розничного кредитного портфеля соответствующих банков, ЦБ уже готовит ряд мер. Среди них применение повышенной нормы резервирования на возможные потери по выданным займам МФО, а также ограничение максимального количества возможных пролонгаций и максимального количества микрозаймов одному заемщику. Кроме того, регулятор намерен усовершенствовать правоприменительную практику по определению состава банковских холдингов и установлению в отношении входящих в них МФО обязательных для исполнения требований, аналогичных требованиям для кредитных организаций и банковских групп. Сейчас на стадии согласования находится соответствующий пакет поправок в части получения ЦБ надзорных полномочий в отношении банковских холдингов, отмечается в обзоре.

Источник: kommersant.ru

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When I originally commented I clicked the -Inform me when new comments are added- checkbox and also currently each time a comment is included I get four e-mails with the same remark. Is there any way you can remove me from that solution? Thanks!

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