«Восточный» гамбит: могут ли банки менять ставки по старым кредитам

«Восточный» гамбит: могут ли банки менять ставки по старым кредитам

Фото: Никита Попов/РБК

Клиенты банка «Юниаструм», на днях объединившегося с банком «Восточный», пожаловались на изменение условий по старым договорам. Что делать, если банк меняет тарифы по своим продуктам в одностороннем порядке?

На этой неделе завершилось присоединение банка «Юниаструм» к банку «Восточный». В единый государственный реестр юридических лиц была внесена запись о прекращении деятельности «Юниаструма», а все обязательства кредитной организации и ее клиентская база перешли к «Восточному». Также ему досталась сеть отделений «Юниаструма». Накануне присоединения клиенты банка стали жаловаться на то, что «Юниаструм» якобы в одностороннем порядке меняет условия по действующим договорам, приводя их в соответствие со стандартами «Восточного». На форуме Banki.ru появилось несколько сообщений, что банк стал без согласования с клиентом закрывать кредитные лимиты, предлагая переоформить действующие карты на менее выгодных условиях. Также клиентам предлагался перевыпуск карт (как кредитных, так и дебетовых) с уже оплаченным годовым обслуживанием.

Один из пользователей Banki.ru 18 января написал в отзывах о банке «Юниаструм», что он более семи лет пользовался карточкой Gold под 17,9% годовых, но в декабре ему позвонили из сервисного центра банка и сообщили о закрытии кредитного лимита в одностороннем порядке в связи с предстоящим объединением с «Восточным». «Если мне нужно, то я должен прийти в офис, дополнительно заплатить за выпуск GOLD-карты — и тогда мне, может быть, выпустят ее с лимитом 100 тыс. руб. под 29% годовых», — рассказывает клиент. Среди прочих жалоб на форуме упоминалось, что «Юниаструм» прекратил пополнение открытых вкладов.

На пользу клиентам

Глава банка «Восточный экспресс» Алексей Кордичев заявил, что временное прекращение пополнения вкладов было связано с работами по их переносу на баланс «Восточного» в период с 20 по 22 января. В результате вклады были перенесены в БИС «Восточного» с сохранением действовавших условий, и в дальнейшем клиенты смогут, как и прежде, вносить на них деньги, отметил финансист. При этом глава «Восточного» подтвердил, что по некоторым кредитным картам действительно предполагается обнуление лимита, но ими можно пользоваться для погашения задолженности или покупок за счет собственных средств.

Это актуально прежде всего для владельцев карт MasterCard и тех, чьи кредитки не подключены к системе идентификации 3D-Secure. «Банк «Восточный» работает с платежной системой Visa, а клиентов «Юниаструма» с картами MasterCard, может быть, всего тысяча. Что касается 3D-Secure, поддерживать карты без технологии — огромный операционный риск и для нас, и для клиентов», — пояснил Кордичев. Банкир добавил, что все желающие могут получить взамен карту «Восточного» со всеми необходимыми технологиями безопасности и бонусными услугами. Если кто-то из клиентов «Юниаструма» не захочет пользоваться своими картами после присоединения, банк готов полностью вернуть деньги, уплаченные за годовое обслуживание. Дебетовые карты «Юниаструма» продолжат обслуживаться по прежним тарифам и во всей сети банкоматов.

Тарифное самоуправство

Случай «Юниаструма» не уникален: россияне периодически жалуются на изменение условий договоров в том или ином банке. И далеко не всегда это связано со сделками слияния или присоединения. Например, в октябре 2016 года «Бинбанк Столица» (бывший банк «Европлан») изменил условия обслуживания по дебетовым картам: за снятие наличных по новым тарифам удерживалась комиссия в размере 99 руб. Ранее клиенты могли снимать со своих карт суммы, превышающие 5 тыс. руб., бесплатно. После этих изменений они стали возмущаться тем, что банк изменил тарифы в одностороннем порядке и не предупредил об этом клиентов.

Кроме того, после резкой девальвации рубля в конце 2014 года и ужесточения монетарной политики ЦБ российские банки неоднократно повышали в одностороннем порядке ставки по выданным ранее кредитным картам. К примеру, в декабре 2014 года банк «Авангард» увеличил ставки по действующим карточным кредитам на 6 п.п., объяснив свои действия ростом ключевой ставки Банка России. Позже его примеру последовал банк «Русский стандарт», который в апреле 2015 года повысил процентную ставку по действующим кредитным картам почти на 7 п.п. — с 28 до 34,9% годовых. Как сообщала пресс-служба банка, «Русский стандарт» направил части клиентов предложение о переходе на другой тарифный план, который предполагает соответствующее изменение ставки. Правда, отказаться от этого предложения было невозможно: в этом случае клиент больше не смог бы пользоваться существующим лимитом кредитной карты. Погасить существующую задолженность можно было на старых условиях.

Кто прав

У опрошенных РБК экспертов нет единого мнения в отношении правомерности действий банков, меняющих условия по кредитным договорам в одностороннем порядке. Юрист «Финпотребсоюза» Алексей Драч убежден, что закрытие кредитных лимитов клиентам «Юниаструма» является нарушением законодательства. По его словам, согласно ст.452 Гражданского кодекса, изменение договора по обслуживанию кредитной карты — всегда результат проявления воли двух сторон.

«Кредитный лимит — сумма кредита — это существенное условие кредитного договора, без которого сама сделка не имеет смысла. Односторонне изменить лимит банк не вправе. Это, по сути, отказ от исполнения договора», — заявляет он. Ссылаясь на ст.821 ГК РФ (отказ от предоставления или получения кредита), Драч подчеркивает, что банк может отказаться от предоставления кредита только в двух случаях: если есть обстоятельства, свидетельствующие о том, что сумма займа не будет возвращена, или если заемщик нарушил условия целевого кредита. «Реорганизация банка не дает ему права на отказ от исполнения договора. Более того, правопреемник в силу закона обязан отвечать по обязательствам правопредшественника», — подчеркнул он.

Финансовый омбудсмен Павел Медведев придерживается иной точки зрения. Он утверждает, что изменение тарифов — это частое явление, и оно абсолютно законно. Банк лишь должен предупредить клиента за некоторое время. «Информацию об изменениях достаточно разместить на сайте, и это, как правило, прописывается в договоре. То есть формально человек предупрежден», — пояснил омбудсмен. В то же время он признает, что в большинстве случаев люди не замечают сообщений об изменении условий договора, и это создает проблемы.

Между тем в «Восточном» заверили, что информация о необходимости переоформления некоторых документов и банковских продуктов была доведена до сведения клиентов заблаговременно. На форуме Banki.ru сохранились копии сообщений с сайта «Юниаструма» о том, что владельцам карт MasterCard необходимо перевыпустить карту в «Восточном». Пресс-служба Бинбанка также заявила, что уведомление об изменении тарифов было размещено на сайте банка за неделю до этого. Таким образом, «Бинбанк Столица» оповестил клиентов об изменениях, как было необходимо, подчеркивает пресс-служба. «Внесение изменений в тарифы по дебетовым картам в одностороннем порядке — стандартная практика для любых банков, такая возможность предусматривается в договоре с клиентом и допускается российским законодательством», — отмечается в комментарии.

Партнер юридической компании «Деловой фарватер» Сергей Варламов подтверждает, что российское законодательство не запрещает банкам в одностороннем порядке повышать процентные ставки по уже выданным кредитам, но только в одном случае: если такая возможность прямо предусмотрена в кредитном договоре с заемщиком и описаны условия такого повышения.

Что делать

Сделать что-либо в таких ситуациях возможно, если в договоре с банком нет пункта о возможности изменения условий. Если это действительно так, Алексей Драч из «Финпотребсоюза» рекомендует заемщикам подать в банк «Восточный» претензии о предоставлении кредита на не согласованных договорами условиях. И если это не поможет — попробовать обратиться в суд. Основанием может быть взыскание с банка неустойки по п.5 ст.28 закона «О защите прав потребителей» (за несвоевременное оказание финансовой услуги). Председатель Общества защиты прав потребителей Михаил Аншаков также советует начать с жалобы непосредственно в банк. Если кредитная организация отказывается удовлетворить ее, необходимо обратиться в Роспотребнадзор, а затем — в суд. В суде клиент вправе требовать компенсации как переплаченных процентов, так и расходов, связанных с судебным процессом (например, оплата услуг юриста), и компенсации морального вреда, рассказал Аншаков. Павел Медведев, в свою очередь, напоминает: если задолженность небольшая (до 300 тыс. руб.), можно пожаловаться лично финансовому омбудсмену. Правда, если в договоре пункт об изменении условий есть, все это результата не принесет. Таким образом, главный совет при взаимодействии с банками — в первую очередь внимательно читать договор, сходятся во мнении эксперты. 

Источник: rbc.ru

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