Карточный фокус: из-за чего банк может заблокировать карту за рубежом

Карточный фокус: из-за чего банк может заблокировать карту за рубежом

Фото: Андрей Аркуша / Global Look Press

В преддверии майских праздников и сезона отпусков РБК разбирался, в каких случаях банк может заблокировать в заграничной поездке карточку и что делать, если это произошло

РБК опросил топ-10 банков по объему срочных вкладов (рейтинг Frank Research Group) и других экспертов о наиболее распространенных причинах блокировки банковских карт за рубежом в одностороннем порядке. Как оказалось, правила, регламентирующие блокирование пластиковых карт, каждая кредитная организация устанавливает самостоятельно. Например, Сбербанк при выявлении подозрительной активности в той или иной стране может отказать в проведении транзакции, а в некоторых случаях даже заблокировать карту. У Альфа-банка свой подход к этой проблеме — он не доверяет банкоматам, которые считывают данные с карты через полосу, а не чип. Тем не менее принципы, которыми руководствуются банки при блокировке карт, в целом совпадают. По каким причинам банки могут лишать своих клиентов возможности совершать транзакции в заграничной поездке?

Причины блокировки

По словам директора департамента управления рисками Visa в России Эвелины Нечипоренко, блокировка карты по инициативе банка может произойти в случае подозрения на мошенническую операцию. «Алгоритм, анализирующий все транзакции, автоматически выявляет нестандартные и подозрительные действия: например, большое количество идентичных списаний в небольшой промежуток времени или списания из нетипичных мест, в которых владелец карты не может находиться», — рассказывает Нечипоренко. При этом эксперт замечает, что платежная система не блокирует карты — это может сделать банк-эмитент.

«Причин, по которым операция признается подозрительной, всегда комплекс», — добавляет глава дирекции мониторинга электронного бизнеса Альфа-банка Алексей Голенищев. Одна из наиболее распространенных — использование чиповой карты в банкомате, предназначенном для полосных карточек. С точки зрения безопасности такие банкоматы считаются неблагонадежными, при этом они широко распространены в США, Латинской Америке и странах юго-восточной Азии. «Иными словами, если операция проходит в банкомате, который может обрабатывать чиповые карты, но в нем проходит транзакция по полосе, такие операции будут отвергнуты», — поясняет Голенищев.

Представитель пресс-службы Сбербанка также рассказал РБК, что сейчас платежные системы относят к странам повышенного риска 11 государств. Это Венесуэла, Гонконг, Индонезия, Малайзия, Мексика, Сингапур, Таиланд, Тайвань, Украина, Шри-Ланка и Япония. Директор по карточным технологиям Промсвязьбанка Александр Петров добавляет, что риск блокировки карт зависит от уровня жизни и развития платежной инфраструктуры в странах. «Исключение — США, где уже давно буксуют с переходом на чип, поэтому в стране меньше чиповых терминалов, чем в прочих развитых странах», — говорит Петров.

В высокотехнологичной Японии ситуация аналогичная. «В тех странах, в которых раньше других ввели безналичную оплату, больше старого оборудования, в том числе банкоматов с лентами», — объясняет замруководителя лаборатории компьютерной криминалистики и исследования вредоносного кода Group-IB Сергей Никитин.

Что касается типа покупок, то, по словам банкиров, среди рисковых торговых точек — ювелирные бутики, магазины по продаже техники и дорогих брендов — то есть места, где продают высоколиквидный товар на большие суммы. «Мошенников, как правило, интересуют деньги, поэтому, если сумма операции высокая, возникают наибольшие риски», — поясняет Голенищев.

Старший юрист юридической компании «ЮрпартнерЪ» Денис Ковалев также обращает внимание на то, что банки смотрят на частые снятия наличных или покупки по карте, сделанные в разных странах с короткими промежутками времени, поскольку это является одной из популярных схем мошенников по обналичиванию средств с краденых карт. «Если в банкомате можно снять максимум $300 за один раз и с карты начинают идти одна за одной транзакции на эту сумму, это тоже может вызвать проблемы», — отмечает Никитин.

Как происходит блокировка

Банк может заблокировать как конкретную операцию, так и карту в целом. Если система выявляет, что операция максимально рисковая, то она отклоняется. При этом сотрудник службы мониторинга может звонить клиенту для проверки — совершал он данную операцию или нет. Если клиент подтверждает операцию, то при повторном проведении она будет успешна.

Также банк может сначала заблокировать карту, а потом перезвонить клиенту. «Как правило, клиент узнает о блокировке карты по факту отклонения операций, — говорит руководитель службы банковских карт банка ВТБ Мария Точилова. — В случае компрометации карты или при наличии подозрений о проведении по счету несанкционированных операций банк связывается с клиентом и уточняет, были ли проведены данные операции».

В Альфа-банке карточка может блокироваться, если операция считается рискованной, а до клиента дозвониться не удается. При этом клиент сразу получает соответствующее СМС-уведомление и уведомление по электронной почте. В том же сообщении банк обычно предлагает варианты коммуникации: телефонный центр, интернет-банк, интернет-чат, мобильное приложение, с помощью которых можно подтвердить операцию для последующей разблокировки карты.

Во избежание блокировки карты банкиры советуют уведомлять их о планирующихся поездках: позвонить по номеру, указанному на оборотной стороне пластиковой карты, оставить обращение на сайте или самостоятельно установить область действия карты в интернет-банке. «Вместе с тем следует понимать, что в случае нетипичной активности по карте или счету клиента в целях безопасности и предотвращения хищений средств банк все равно может заблокировать карту до момента подтверждения операций», — предупреждает начальник управления сопровождения банковских карт Московского кредитного банка Валерия Гоманова.

Что делать, если карта заблокирована

При возникновении любых проблем эксперты рекомендуют клиентам в первую очередь связаться с банком, специалисты которого должны предложить варианты решения проблемы. «Это может быть временная разблокировка карты для снятия наличных или оперативный выпуск новой карты», — рассказывает Эвелина Нечипоренко. Так, банки ВТБ24, Сбербанк, Газпромбанк и Альфа-банк предоставляют возможность разблокировать карту по звонку в контакт-центр на несколько минут для снятия наличных или оплаты покупки со скомпрометированной карты.

Некоторые кредитные организации также предлагают выпуск emergency card (временной карты). В течение одного-двух дней клиент получит новую карту в ближайшем к гостинице банке. Однако эта услуга часто платная. Например, для клиентов Альфа-банка экстренный (в течение 72 часов) перевыпуск карты в случае утраты за пределами России обойдется в 6750 руб., но если утеряна карта категории Gold и выше, то бесплатно. В Тинькофф Банке клиентам могут перевыпустить карту и отправить ее за границу по почте. Эта услуга является бесплатной, однако доставка карты по почте может занять одну-две недели.

Банки также нередко предусматривают такую услугу, как выдача наличных за пределами России. Например, клиентам Сбербанка для этого нужно обратиться к оператору службы поддержки — он переведет деньги на счет в местном банке. Однако сумма не может превышать $5 тыс. Тинькофф Банк также позволяет экстренно снять наличные, но не только в местном банке, но и в отделении Western Union. Получить наличные по картам Mastercard можно через офисы Western Union, по картам Visa — в отделениях местных банков.

В Ситибанке обе описанные услуги доступны только клиентам категории Citigold и Citigold Private Client. Клиент может воспользоваться услугой экстренного получения наличных и получить до $10 тыс. в день в зарубежных отделениях Ситибанка. Средства могут быть выданы при условии наличия у клиента валютного счета с доступными средствами. Кроме того, можно заказать срочный перевыпуск карты через Citigold CitiPhone — карта будет доставлена туда, где находится клиент, курьером.

Если клиент потерпел материальный ущерб и в этом, по его мнению, есть вина банка, Голенищев советует собрать необходимый пакет документов, подтверждающих факт этого ущерба, и по возвращении из поездки отнести в банк, подав соответствующую претензию. Если банк не обосновал отсутствие своей вины и не решил проблему, надо идти в суд, заключает эксперт. 

Источник: rbc.ru

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