Гарантия безбедной старости

Гарантия безбедной старости

Плюсы и минусы инвестиционного страхования

Гарантия безбедной старости
фото: Михаил Ковалев

Страховка или вклад

Эксперты определяют этот финансовый продукт по-разному. Чаще всего можно найти формулировку, что ИСЖ — это вид накопительного страхования с инвестиционной составляющей. Однако, например, Елена Ушкова, начальник управления по работе с партнерами МКБ, считает: «ИСЖ — это инвестиционный продукт, в который включена опция страхования жизни».

Немного другой точки зрения придерживается Александр Денисов, заместитель гендиректора «АльфаСтрахование-Жизнь»: «Цель инвестиционного страхования — накопление большой суммы денег к выбранному клиентом периоду и одновременное получение страховой защиты на большую сумму. Инвестиционный доход, который застрахованные получают в конце действия периода, — это дополнительный бонус, а не цель приобретения программы страхования».

Как пояснил руководитель направления банкострахования Промсвязьбанка Максим Холматов, страховщики не могут продавать инвестпродукты напрямую, т.к. они не подпадают под действие их лицензии. Поэтому и были разработаны совмещенные программы, которые, с одной стороны, позволяют страховщикам привлекать средства населения, а с другой — позволяют клиентам получать двойную выгоду в виде наличия полноценного договора страхования и потенциального инвестиционного дохода.

Специфика продукта

Договор ИСЖ заключается, как правило, на длительный срок — не менее 3 лет, в течение которого страхователь осуществляет взносы с установленной периодичностью (ежемесячно, ежеквартально или сразу всю сумму). «Вложенные средства делятся на страховую, консервативную и инвестиционную части. Средства консервативной части инвестируются в инструменты с фиксированной доходностью и обеспечивают возврат вложенных денег по окончании программы. Инвестиционная часть размещается в рыночные активы, которые должны принести доход клиенту в случае их роста. При увеличении цены рыночного актива клиент получает доход в заранее определенной доле от роста (доля может быть как больше, так и меньше 100%). По окончании программы клиент получает сумму, равную сумме взноса, и, при наличии, инвестиционный доход. Размер инвестиционного дохода не ограничен, он зависит от выбранной клиентом инвестиционной стратегии и срока размещения средств», — сообщил первый заместитель председателя правления банка «Русский Стандарт» Евгений Лапин.

Помимо этого пятилетний договор ИСЖ дает право на налоговые льготы: налоговый вычет в размере 13% от оплаченного страхового взноса и отсутствие обязательств уплаты налогов по страховой выплате. Уточню, что трехлетний договор такого права не дает. Максимальный размер страхового взноса, с которого можно получить налоговый вычет, ограничен и составляет 120 тыс. рублей.

Еще один положительный момент — заключить договора ИСЖ можно сразу с несколькими компаниями. Но здесь есть нюансы. В части налогового вычета на сумму страхового взноса, как пояснила пресс-служба СК «РГС-Жизнь»: «Законом определена максимальная сумма налоговой льготы по всем договорам страхования. Клиент может заключить несколько договоров страхования, однако льгота на текущий момент законодательно ограничена итоговой суммой 15 600 руб.». В части освобождения от подоходного налога, как объяснил Максим Холматов, НДФЛ уплачивается только с дохода, который превысил ставку рефинансирования ЦБ РФ за срок действия программы.

Есть у договоров ИСЖ свои особенности. «Во-первых, это особый статус полисов страхования жизни. Они не являются имуществом и, следовательно, не подлежат конфискации, аресту или разделу (например, при разводе). То есть на них не может быть наложено взыскание со стороны третьих лиц. Во-вторых, это адресность продукта. Страховые выплаты в случае смерти не включаются в наследство и производятся назначенным выгодоприобретателям, а страховые выплаты по дожитию — только самому застрахованному лицу», — отметил заместитель председателя правления Росгосстрах Банка Аскер Еникеев.

Ложка дегтя

Конечно, главный недостаток ИСЖ — отсутствие гарантированного дохода. Обещать можно хоть 200% прибыли, но в реальности точно рассчитывать клиент может лишь на выплату суммы, которая прописана в договоре и не превышает сумму страховых взносов.

Еще один минус ИСЖ — это невозможность досрочного расторжения договора с сохранением всех внесенных денег. Как уже говорилось, минимальный срок таких договоров составляет три года (а чаще пять лет). И это может стать существенной проблемой. В случае расторжения договора клиент получает лишь выкупную сумму. Причем в зависимости от способа внесения средств (единовременно или частями), срока страхования и даты расторжения договора эта сумма может колебаться от 0 до 90% суммы страхового взноса.

Еще одним существенным недостатком ИСЖ можно назвать отсутствие гарантийного фонда, аналога АСВ, который смог бы обеспечить выплаты клиенту в случаях отзыва лицензии или банкротства страховой компании. Если страховщик в подобной ситуации не передаст портфель или не расторгнет договоры с возвратом премии, получить возмещение клиенту можно будет, только попав в реестр кредиторов.

Не надо забывать и о страховой составляющей. Ее нельзя назвать ощутимой, так как при наступлении страхового случая по стандартным рискам (например, «смерть по любой причине») возмещается внесенный взнос с инвестиционным доходом, рассчитанным на дату страхового события. Только при наличии дополнительных рисков (например, «смерть в результате несчастного случая») можно получить дополнительную сумму.

И последнее, о чем говорят пользователи ИСЖ, — это непрозрачность инвестиционной стратегии страховщиков. Как правило, клиенту предлагаются на выбор несколько стратегий инвестиций с различной степенью его участия. Но в любом случае полностью управлять вложениями, как, например, открытыми у брокеров инвестиционными счетами, страхователь не сможет.

Как отметила Елена Ушкова, при заключении договора ИСЖ страховая компания дает понимание доходности по выбранному продукту на основании анализа статистики предыдущих лет. Однако это не означает, что рынок акций будет вести себя аналогично и в будущем. ИСЖ относится к разряду сложных инвестиционных продуктов, несет в себе как определенные риски, так и возможность заработать. Неправильно воспринимать ИСЖ как банковский вклад с гарантированной процентной ставкой, и это клиент должен понимать, заключила эксперт.

Источник: mk.ru

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